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Computers in the 1960s were too slow to generate complex images in real time, however, so Whitney instead used the computer to output frames of animation to film. In animations like Permutations (1966–1968; developed in collaboration with IBM researcher Jack Citron) and Arabesque (1975; created with the assistance of Larry Cuba), Whitney explored the ways in which the kinetic rhythms of moving dots could produce perceptual effects that were strongly analogous to modulations of musical tension.